A scar is a natural thing which is considered to be the body’s healing process that restores the normal skin after trauma. All but the most negligible injuries will leave scarring somewhat. Scars can also form on tissues in the body apart from the skin. Scars usually start as firm red or purple fibrous tissue that slowly lightens and flattens out after a while. Older scars tend to look silvery white.
Causes of scars
Cuts, burns, surgeries, bites, acne, and other injuries to the skin can all leave lasting marks. The process of the formation of a scar is mentioned below:
- Trauma harms the skin and hemostasis starts. Blood platelets begin accumulating instantly and release chemokines, cytokines, and hormones.
- The inflammatory phase starts. The factors and cells required for the healing procedure travel to the wound site. Cytokines start stimulating the propagation of fibroblasts, which are the dedicated cells of which collection is made. Lymphocytes also begin emitting lymphokines, including fibroblast growth factor.
- A clot then forms over the exposed area of the cut and dries. Once the scab develops, the fibroblasts that have accrued in the area beneath the surface of the skin will begin oozing into the clot under the scab.
- Fibroblasts exude collagen. After the clot is saturated with fibroblasts sufficiently, they start secreting collagen and a growth factor. The growth feature is what allows the fibroblasts to articulate their contractile proteins.
- Fibroblasts drag the wound jointly. Now, fibroblasts are no more migratory cells and can start contracting to pull the wound together strongly to heal.
Types of Scars
The most common types of scars are hypertrophic and keloid, both of which generate stiff collagen that overextends the tissue. Atrophic scarring, on the other hand, is most popularly seen in people suffering from acne, has a depressed appearance as its collagen bunches do not overstretch the tissue. Listed below are some of the most common types of scars:
- Keloid – These scars can extend beyond the boundary of the wound, probably restricting movement. Keloid scars most usually affect dark skin.
- Hypertrophic – These are different from keloid scars as they do not extend beyond the original boundaries of the wound. They are typically caused by trauma or burns.
- Contracture – This type of scar takes place when the skin is burned. This scar can tighten the skin to the point that they may impede movement, potentially also affecting nerves and muscles.
- Atrophic – These scars are caused by the loss of structures below the skin that support it, such as fat or muscle. Chickenpox, acne, and accidents commonly cause atrophic scarring.
- Stretch marks – This occurs when the skin stretches. Stretch marks most frequently occur during growth spurts, rapid and substantial weight gain, or pregnancy.
How to prevent scars?
Some common scar-prevention tips are mentioned below:
- Clean the area properly – Wash the area soothingly with mild soap and cool water to kill microbes and get rid of any debris. Ensure you clean the area around the wound too. If you think your wound need stitches, visit the emergency room as soon as possible. The wound will start healing on its own if you wait for a day hours or more, which stops successful suturing. Stitches, when required, can assist the wound heal appropriately and reduce scarring. You can use no scars facewash to get a squeaky clean and rejuvenated look with softer skin. This face wash contains Salicylic Acid and Aloe Vera which helps to prevent acne, balance the pH level of the skin and control oil.
- Apply petroleum jelly as this will prevent the wound from drying out and scab. Scabs hinder healing. Making your wound damp and free from scab will stop the scar from becoming too large, deep, or tickly. Use petroleum jelly to the place using a clean cotton swab.
- Cover the area – Apply a bandage to the area as this helps keep germs and irritants out and lock the moisture in. For bigger burns and wounds, hydrogel or silicone gel sheets can be used.
- Make sure to change the dressing and clean the wound on a daily basis. After you wash the area, you do not need to use an antibiotic gel.
- If scab forms, do not touch it. Disturbing the scab will make your scar shoddier. If you have stitches, abide by the doctor’s instructions on how to care for them and when to remove them.
- Do not expose the area in the sun. Keep in mind that the scar tissue is more vulnerable to damage from ultraviolet rays than normal skin tissue. Exposing the scar to the sun will make it darken and more noticeable. If you have to go outside, use at least SPF 30 sunscreen to the scar.
- Give a massage to the scar with vitamin E every day. Studies recommend that rubbing the scar, after the wound has healed, with vitamin E would assist the scar to go away.
Medical scar treatments
Certain types of scars might need medical treatment to decrease their appearance. Treatment options may comprise:
- Cryotherapy – This involves freezing the scar off the skin with liquid nitrogen.
- Steroid injections – Injections at the scar site might lessen its size in the case of raised scars.
- Surgery – Surgery might be essential to get rid of the scar. Surgery usually includes a skin graft, and thus burn victims frequently have this form of scar surgery.
- Gel pads with silicone sheets – This can assist stop keloid scars and can decrease irritation and even out the scar.
However, before opting for any of these above mentioned surgical procedures it is better to go for home scar treatments. But while selecting a natural scar treatment, ensure you look closely at the ingredients. Make sure that you choose the product that will actually work. As per recent research, it has been found that numerous natural ingredients are effectual in reducing the appearance of